Several weeks ago my neighborhood in Michigan featured a weather extravaganza of substantially below zero temperatures with wind chills approaching -30 degrees, followed promptly by several days in the fifties. Astonishing, this. Nature is as extraordinary as it is unpredictable. Though I have observed and taken note of natural phenomena over a lifetime of seasons, I regularly experience nature up to something I have never seen before. How I love this. What I have never seen before in the landscape and garden not only keeps me interested, it teaches me. I like adding this and that to my body of experience. Yes, I will always and forever be a student of nature. There really isn’t any other choice, is there?

Those interminable few days I felt imprisoned by extreme cold were followed by days warm enough to be outdoors with or without a jacket. I cannot ever remember a time when 50 degrees felt more delightfully warm and invigorating! How I enjoyed that brief episode of tolerable winter weather. That warm moment had a frigid one hot on its heels.The early morning just days ago was notable for the 1/4″-1/2″ of ice coating every surface, much of which still remains tonight. Yesterday and today?  Rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, and wind on a loop that kept repeating. A whole winter’s worth of nasty weather, one version after another, hour after hour.

The bitterly cold weather was not a hardship for me. The National Weather Service had advised in advance we had a polar vortex set to dip down into our zone. I took heed of that prediction. My house, constructed and outfitted specifically almost a century ago to provide shelter did what it was designed to do. I had a warm space, with hot and cold running water and electricity. I was lucky in that regard. So many people lost power. I did fully gear up to take the dogs outside, but our exposure to a hostile environment was as limited as I could make it. Out and in, we were, as fast as having old dogs would permit.  A limited exposure to terrifying cold temperatures meant we survived without incident. Terrifying cold? Not the usual thing, but not that unusual either.

The details? A down 3/4 length coat that zips up above the neck. A hood on that coat with a velcro closure. A fuzzy warm headband. Flannel lined jeans. Merino wool socks. Shearling lined winter boots. A wool scarf wrapped around my shoulders and face. And wool gloves underneath wool mittens. Did I forget anything? All of this for an exposure to seriously below zero temperatures for less than five minutes. I do indeed have lots of information and gear to comfort and protect me in bitter cold conditions.  But what about the landscape outside my door?

Winter hardiness in plants is a big, wide, and fiercely debated topic. Annual plants are tropical in origin, and perish once the temperature goes below freezing. Perennial plants routinely die back to the ground. The life in their roots is protected by a mass of soil around them. They winter over in a dormant state. Lavender is a sub shrub. Those stems above ground are alive the entire winter. It is no surprise that sub shrubs in my zone can succumb to brutal winter weather. Anything living above ground in my zone is subject to punishing winter weather. The short story is as follows: Deciduous trees in my zone jettison their leaves in the fall, and shut down for the winter. They hibernate. Likewise woody shrubs. The roots below ground remain viable, but the production of chlorophyll goes on hiatus. The fierce winter weather and winds rarely bother the bare twigs of trees and shrubs. Those twigs are shut down, and buttoned up. Once spring is truly upon us, the buds set in late summer will begin to swell. Perennials in my zone die back to ground level, and wait for a call to grow in the spring. Evergreens? The broad leaved evergreens suffer in brutal winter weather more than any other plant. The picture above, taken in the spring of 2014, after the most brutal winter I have ever experienced, was all about digging up some dead boxwood that had been growing for better than twenty years in front of the shop.

I had no advance warning that we would be subjected to below and just above zero temperatures for lengthy periods. Every brutally cold day that went by was accompanied by an escalating worry. Evergreens of all types were damaged and killed outright in this once in a lifetime fierce winter. The gravelled spaces in the foreground of these pots planted with boxwood this picture show no trace of the plants that died from extreme cold and wind. A friend in the landscape maintenance business persuaded me to stand pat with all of the other damaged plants in this hedge. I am glad I took her advice. Five years after the fact, the south side of this boxwood hedge is all green. These damaged plants did indeed survive.

It takes a lot of exposure to gardening and observing that outcome before it becomes clear that every plant’s first and foremost goal in life is to survive. Species annual plants that most surely will die with the first hard frost will produce seeds. Perennials die back to the ground and go dormant-in an effort to survive the winter. Deciduous trees and shrubs quit producing chlorophyll, and shed their leaves prior to winter. Most woody plants start slowing down in August, in anticipation of the dormant season.  Needled evergreens under stress will set cones profusely. It astonishes me that an evergreen in decline will put huge energy to providing seed for the next generation. Survival can be all about the next generation. As for the here and now, those needles have evolved to present as little surface area as possible that might be damaged by desiccating winds and cold.

I may fear for the plants in my landscape in a bad winter, but they have evolved such to handle adverse conditions. Very few of them need me to intervene on their behalf. In conditions that are so bad as to threaten their life, there are things gardeners can do to provide their treasured plants with a leg up. Good drainage is a major component of winter hardiness. Even Japanese iris want a well drained winter situation. Burlap can help protect boxwood from desiccating winter wind and sun. VaporGard can provide a similar layer of protection.

But by and large, plants have very complex and astonishing mechanisms built in via evolution which are geared to protect their chances of survival. My contribution to that effort is minimal. This is a long way of saying that nature looks after its own. The best contribution I can make to my evergreens is to water them liberally before the ground freezes. An evergreen needle or leaf which is loaded with water prior to the frozen ground is a leaf that is better able to survive.

This section of my 25 year old boxwood hedge shows the sure signs of superficial winter wind and cold damage. This trouble can be trimmed off in the spring. What interests me more is that the substantial dead sections from the 2013 winter have healed.

The evergreens in this pot outside my office door are showing signs of damage from our extreme cold. How could they not? These are cut branches. They have no connection to a parent plant. There are so many ideas that can occupy  a garderner’s winter. My evolution as a gardener-on going.


  1. A little spray paint for the greens on your outdoor pot. Unless it’s too cold to spray!

  2. Bruce Zellers says

    You have a good voice and I applaud your esoteric knowledge of the gardening World.

  3. Kitty Gibson says

    Deborah – Love the LED lightburst fixture. I bought 2 this winter that I plan on using next year. Really bright and beautiful at night.
    Kitty Gibson Perrysburg, Ohio

  4. Barbara from Guelph says

    Here in southern Ontario we are in the midst of snow and freezing rain. Tree branches weighted with ice, evergreens with heavy coats of snow and amazing magnolia buds just managing to stay alive. The hellebores are under there somewhere.The grasses bending in the wind. The best we can do is observe……and wait. Choosing to live and garden in a four season climate is an exercise in optimism. And I wouldn’t trade it for the world.

    • Deborah Silver says

      Dear Barbara, you are right that nature will sort it out, and the best a gardener has to offer is optimism and good care. best regards, Deborah

  5. Very curious about the objects on the walls in the photo with the radiator and the Bean boots! Can you please explain?

    • Deborah Silver says

      Dear Ginny, Buck has a collection of old slide wire potentiometers – devices used to measure the potential for electrical current. Most of these scientific instruments date from the turn of the century, and were used in universities that offered courses in electrical engineering. They are beautifully made objects that he admires. Hope this explains it! best, Deborah

  6. Lori Brasier says

    That brutal winter a few years ago killed all of my New Dawn climbing roses and I was heartbroken. But my motto as a gardener has always been, “so we begin again…”

  7. Linda Brazill says

    WE were lucky to have a big snowstorm before the vortex so I am hoping that means less damage than last year with its cold temps and no snow here in Wisconsin.

  8. What a great botany/horticulture lesson! And your third photo, the one of the empty pool, is reminiscent of Deborah Turbeville

  9. Thank you for sharing your knowledge and experience with brutal/cold weather impact on plantings. My two newer trees are a Korean Fur and Coral bark Japanese Maple. I have worried about both during the temperature swings this winter. The Japanese Maple seems fine and is spectacularly red against the snow. Sadly, the Korean Fur did die off at the very top about 4 inches. I’m tempted to cut off the dead top in the Spring, but am concerned also about doing more damage than good. I’ve never experienced this die off from cold. (What would you do, Deborah?) That said, I am impressed that your boxwood winter damage made a great full recover. A very happy ending!

    • Deborah Silver says

      Dear Susan, it is not that unusual for a marginally hardy tree to sustain damage to the top after terribly cold weather. My parrotias sustained damage like this in 2013-they are still coming out of it. I did nothing to them. I would wait until spring, and give the fir plenty of time to show you the extent of the damage. If you are not sure about what to do, do nothing. No need to be in a hurry. all the best, Deborah

  10. Lengnick Marcia says

    would love to see a photo of the “old” dogs…our 10 year old standard poodle (rescue) dog did not like walking/sinking in the layer of ice on the lawn….Marcia

  11. I would really enjoy seeing some of the paintings you did before you started into Landscaping. I also did the same thing.
    But your eloquence in writing always draws me in . And I begin to start looking at more blogs, more photos,and more replies… My lady you are amazing.

  12. Jeanette Hyden says

    Fantastic prose on plant survival during this crazy winter weather! Do you recall the paint/color used on your building? It is a classic color used with the black and white.

    • Deborah Silver says

      Dear Jeanette, I am so sorry, but I do not remember the name of the color. It is a dark greenish brown. best, Deborah

  13. Christine Reid says

    Yes, the damage to cut greens can be a little sad. I secretly love winter plantings and want them to stay in as long as they can. In Connecticut we have had spiking warm/cold temperatures too often in the last few years for me to use cut greens much. I plant pots full of evergreen liners of various colors and textures so as to avoid that sad moment after the holidays (IF we are lucky! sometimes sooner!) when alas, the cut greens must go. The larger the pot, the better they overwinter. Chamaecyparis do surprisingly well. Then I look for a spot where I can over summer them, and those that do well are added back into the pots the following holiday season before Thanksgiving. The absolutely very best cut green experience I have had was with super fresh cut Frasier firs about 4 feet tall – we built extensions on the trunks so as to plant them in pots, wrapped the pots in big bows, and they were in fabulous condition in MARCH. Two years in a row — not a fluke. From a PA grower that cut them the week of shipping. (Nursery closed and with it lost the chance to pry free the secret of the grower’s name….)

Leave a Comment